General Studies IART AND CULTURE



Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) of Ministry of Culture, Government of India is organizing a two-day international conference.

About Devayatanam:

  • Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) of Ministry of Culture, Government of India is organizing a two-day international conference ‘Devayatanam – An odyssey of Indian temple architecture on 25th – 26th February 2022 at Hampi, Karnataka. 
  • The Union Minister for Culture, Tourism and DoNER, G Kishan Reddy inaugurates the conference.
  • It is a part of the celebration under Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav 
  • The conference aims to deliberate upon the philosophical, religious, social, economic, technical, scientific, art and architectural aspects of the temple. It also intends to initiate a dialogue on the evolution and development of the various styles of temple architecture such as the Nagara, Vesara, Dravida, Kalinga and others.
  • The temples of Hampi are already featured in the World Heritage List of UNESCO for their Sheer brilliance, Scale of imagination, and Scintillating architecture. Government has proposed Hoysala temples of Belur and Somnathpur to the UNESCO World Heritage List.
  • Approximately 10 of India’s 40 UNESCO World Heritage Inscriptions are Hindu Temples in different architectural styles, patterns and symmetry.
  • In 2021, Rudreswara Temple, (also known as the Ramappa Temple) at Mulugu district, Telangana has been inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage list.


  • The conference provides a platform to discuss, deliberate and disseminate to the world the grandeur of Indian temples, art and architecture.
  • This was in line with the overall vision of the Prime Minister which is based on 5 V’s, i. e. Vikas (development), Virasat (heritage), Vishwas (trust), Vignan (knowledge), which lead us to becoming a vishwaguru so that India shows the world the way.
  • Devayatnam, the house of god is not only a place to worship and perform rituals but also a centre for education, fine arts, music, science & technology, rituals & traditions or activities shaping the society.

How Has the Government Promoted Temple in Recent Times?

  • The Union Government has proposed Hoysala temples of Belur and Somnathpur to the UNESCO World Heritage List.
  • A grand temple of Lord Ram that is being built in Ayodhya.
  • After close to 250 years, the spiritual capital of India – Kashi, has been rejuvenated and has more accessibility with amenities and better infrastructure for devotees.
  • The state of Telangana has built 2 large stone carved temples worth Rs. 1,000 crores.
  • The focus is to make existing spiritual places accessible to devotees through better infrastructure and world class amenities.
    • PRASHAD and SWADESH DARSHAN Scheme to facilitate tourism infrastructure and provide better accessibility and experience at spiritual places with a budget of approximately Rs. 7,000 crores has been conceived.

Significance of Indian Temples

  • Temples have been centres of Indian art, knowledge, culture, spirituality, innovation and education.
  • There have been three major styles of setting up temples in India known as NagaraDravidian and Vesara.
    • Dashavatar temple in Devgarh is of Nagara style which is prevalent between the Himalayas and the Vindhya mountains.
    • The Kailasanathar temple in Kanchi is a Dravidian style temple, developed on the land of Krishna and Kaveri River.
    • Papanatha temple is one of the examples of Vesara style. Vesara is a hybrid form Nagara and Dravidian style.
  • Hindu temple is a combination of art and science which includes Shilpa sastra, vasthu sastra, geometry and symmetry.
  • The temples promote unity, integrity, and civilization.
    • It was during the freedom struggle that all the freedom struggles were resolved before temple fire to fight for freedom of the country.

The architectural principles of temples in India are described in Shilpa Shastra – 

  • Nagara style: The style of temple architecture that became popular in northern India is known as Nagara. Nagara style was developed regionally each region manifesting its own particular qualities.
  • Dravida Style: Dravida style of temple architecture became popular in South India. Dravida style of temples was developed dynastically, however the major features of these temples remained common across the dynasties.
  • Vesara Style: In the mid-seventh century, a distinct style of temple architecture grew in Karnataka region under the patronage of Chalukya rulers. The temples in this region follow a hybridised style which combines the features of both Nagara and Dravida styles.

Similarities and differences of three styles:

Northern regionSouthern regionDeccan region(Between the Vindhyas and Krishna river)
Developed regionally each region manifesting its own particular qualitiesDeveloped dynasticallyMixture of two styles Hybrid style. It was developed both regionally and dynastically.
Ground Plan: Mostly Square shapedGround Plan: Mostly Square shapedGround Plan: increasingly complex, including start like plan
Curvilinear tower (Shikhara built over garbhagriha) gradually curving inwardPyramidical Tower (Vimana) with several stories in receding dimensionThe shape of tower was Pyramidical but height was reduced (Miniature Vimanas)
Multiple ShikharasSubsidiary shrines are either incorporated within the main temple tower, or located as distinct, separate small shrines beside the main temple.Multiple shrines are present side by side
Squared hallSquared hallSquared hall
Sanctum GarbhagrihaSanctum GarbhagrihaSanctum Garbhagriha
Gopurams are absentGopurams are presentGopurams may or may not be present
A water tank may or may not be presentA water tank is present at the front of temple from where water is drawn for sacred purposesA water tank may or may not be present
Compound walls are absentenclosed within a compound wallCompound walls may or may not be present
Examples – Dashavatara temple (Deogarh), Vishwanatha temple(Khajuraho), Lakshman Temple (Khajuraho), Jagannath temple (Puri)Examples – Shore temple (Mahabalipuram), Brihadiswara temple (Thanjavur), Meenakshi Temple (Madurai)Examples – Badami temple, Durga Temple (Aihole), Virupaksh Temple (Pattadkal), Keshava Temple (Somnathpur

Source: PIB

You can find many articles on ART AND CULTURE (part of GS I) in our website. Go through these articles share with your friends and post your views in comment section.

Leave a Reply

Open chat
Hello Dear Aspirant,
Join our whatsapp group here to get Daily Newspapers, Magazines, Monthly, Question Banks and much more..
Just ping us your Name..
See you then..!!!