General Studies IGEOGRAPHYIndian Geography

1.    India: General Introduction


Location of India:

  • Located latitudinally in the Northern Hemisphere and longitudinally in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  • Latitudinal expanse- from 60 4’ N to 370 6’ S latitude
  • Longitudinal expanse- from 680 7’ E to 970 25’ E
  • Northernmost point- The Indira Col in J&K; Altitude of 5,764 meters is a mountain pass located on the Indira Ridge in the Siachen Muztagh in the Karakoram Range. (Not in POK)
  • Southernmost point- Indira point (latitude 60 4’ N/ in Great Nicobar island)
  • Previously known as Pygmalion Point or the parson Point (876 km from equator)
  • Southernmost part of Mainland India- Kanyakumari (60 4’ N)
  • Westernmost Point of India- Ghuar Moti  (23.61° N, 68.7° E) Kutch district/ Gujarat
  • Easternmost Point of India- Kibithu in Anjaw district/ Arunachal Pradesh/ Located on LAC (28°16′N 97°01′E)

Shape and Size of India:

  • Almost quadrangular
  • East to west- 2933 km  // North to South 3214 km (North to South distance is more)
  • Total Land Area – 32,87,263 sq. km.
  • Land Frontier- 15200 km
  • Coastline- 7516.6 km (9 State+ 4  UT) Coastline of mainland- 6100 km
  • Longest coast line- GUJ > Andhra> TN > MH

India’ ocean:

Territorial Sea Frontier/ Zone (TZ)

Contiguous Zone (CZ)

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

12 Nautical from main coastline

From TZ to 24 Nautical from main coastline

From EEZ to 200 Nautical from main coastline

Absolute right to use

Right related to fiscal, excise duties, pollution control, immigration laws

Right to survey, exploitation, conservation and research on mineral resources, marine power, marine life

EEZ area- 2.02 million


Tropic of Cancer:

8 states- Guj- Raj-MP- CHG- JhK- WB- Tripura- Mizo


Indian Standard Meridian: 820 30’ E longitude

  • Passes through 5 states: UP, MP, CHG, Odisha, Andhra
  • Cities present: Mirzapur (UP), Nearby Raipur(CHG), Yanam
  • Indian Standard Time (IST) is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time

Administrative Composition:

·         28 States + 8 Union Territory

Andhra Pradesh (Amaravati)

Haryana (Chandigarh)


Manipur (Imphal)


Arunachal Pradesh (Itanagar)

Himachal Pradesh (Shimla)

Meghalaya (Shillong)

Tamil Nadu(Chennai)

Assam (Dispur)

Jharkhand (Ranchi)



Bihar (Patna)

Karnataka (Bangalore)



Chhattisgarh (Raipur)

Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram)



Goa (Panaji)

Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal)


Uttar Pradesh(Lucknow)

Gujarat (Gandhinagar)

Maharashtra (Mumbai)


West Bengal(Kolkata)


Union Territory

Area (sq. km2)

Union Territory

Area (sq. km2)

Andaman and Nicobar Islands


Jammu and Kashmir






Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu









  •       Jan 2020 – J&K + Ladakh separated and became two new UT
  •      Dadara Nagar + Diu Daman merged and became single UT
  •      Area wise largest : Rajasthan> Madhya Pradesh > Maharashtra > UP
  •      Area wise smallest state: Goa
  •      Population wise: UP > Maharashtra > Bihar > West Bengal
  •      Population wise smallest- Sikkim < Mizoram   


Puducherry (Pondicherry) is only one UT which is spread in three states


1.      Puducherry (Main)- Tamil Nadu

2.      Karaikal – Tamil Nadu

3.      Yanam – Andhra Pradesh

4.      Mahe – Kerala


·         Andaman and Nicobar Islands


          Andaman –  North + Middle + South + Little

2.      Nicobar – Car + Little + Great


·         Port Blair- Capital situated in South Andaman

·         Highest peak- Saddle Peak (North Andaman)

·         Indira Point – the southernmost point of India is the southern point of Great Nicobar Island.

·         Barren Island which is India’s only volcano is in the middle Andaman.

·         Narcondam Island is also a volcanic island.

·         10o Channel separates Andaman from Nicobar.

·         Duncan pass is between South Andaman and Little Andaman.

·         Coco Straight is between North Andaman and Coco island of Myanmar.

·         The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are also known as the Emerald islands.

·         A & N Island also known as Emerald islands




·         Made up of coral reefs

·         8 Degree channel (Between Minicoy and Maldives )

·         9 Degree channel (Separates Minicoy from main archipelago of Lakshadweep)


The Palk Strait:

  • ·         Situated between Tamil Nadu and Shri Lanka
  •            The Ram Setu or Adam’s bridge is s a chain of natural limestone shoals
  •          The extreme point from the side of India is Rameshwaram (Pamban Island) where as extreme point from Shri Lanka is Mannar Island.
  •            The Ram setu divide the Palk strait into two parts
  •             A. Palk Bay (North- East of Ram Setu); B. Gulf of Mannar (South-West of Ram setu)


Frontiers of India:

·         There are seven neighbouring countries on the frontiers of India

·         17 states of India have common land borders with neighbouring countries.


Indian States sharing common border with neighbouring countries