General Studies IART AND CULTURE

Perini dance


A group of artists performed Perini dance in a cultural event, held at Gudi Cheruvu area in Vemulawada town in Telangana recently.

About Perini dance:

  • Perini Sivathandavam is an ancient dance form, from Telangana, which has been revived in recent times.
  • It originated and prospered in Telangana, during the Kakatiya dynasty.
  • It is the ‘dance of the warriors’ performed by the males in front of the idol of Lord Shiva, dedicated to the Supreme dancer before going to the battlefield. 
  • It is enacted on the loud roaring beats of the drums, matching the postures with its rhythm. 
  • It was believed that Perini Shivatandavam raises ‘prerana’ or inspiration among the soldiers. 
  • Evidence of this dance form can be viewed on the walls and pillars of the Ramappa Temple in Warangal where sculptures of various postures of Perini Shiva Thandavam dance are still intact.
  • The dance finds mention in the early medieval work Bharataarnavam by Nandikeshwara. 
  • Based on this work, Padma Shri awardee Late Dr. Nataraja Ramakrishna first made mention of Perini in his award-winning book Daakshinaatyula Natyakala Charithra (1968). 

Kakatiya dynasty

  • The 12th and the 13th centuries saw the emergence of the Kakatiyas. They were at first the feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana, ruling over a small territory near Warangal. Prataparudra I established a sovereign dynasty in 1163 CE. The dynasty saw powerful leaders like Ganapathi Deva and Rudramadevi.
  • Prataparudra I, also known as Kakatiya Rudradeva, was the son of the Kakatiya leader Prola II. It was under his rule that the Kakatiyas declared sovereignty. He ruled the kingdom till 1195 A.D.
  • It was under the rule of Prataparudra I that usage of Telugu language in inscriptions began.
  • Before the establishment of Orugallu/Warangal as the capital, Hanamakonda was the first capital of the Kakatiyas.
  • The great Italian traveller Marco Polo visited the Kakatiya Kingdom sometime during Rudramadevi’s tenure as the ruler of the Kakatiya Dynasty and made note of her administrative style; admiring her extensively.
  • The iconic Kakatiya Thoranam was built by Rudramadevi’s father in the 12th Century. This ornate arch is said to have many similarities with the gateways at the Sanchi Stupa and is also the emblem of Telangana.
  • The scenic Pakhal lake in Warangal was built by Ganapathi Deva.
  • The 1000 pillar temple in Warangal was built during the Kakatiya Rule and is another example to the exquisite Kakatiya Architecture.
  • Under the Kakatiya rule, the caste system was not rigid and in fact, it was not given much significance socially. Anyone could take up any profession and people were not bound to an occupation by birth.
  • The Koh-i-Noor Diamond, which is now among the jewels set in the British Crown, was mined and first owned by the Kakatiya Dynasty.
  • Since the end of 13th Century and the early of 14th Century, Kakatiya Kingdom faced several attacks by the Delhi Sultanate. The attacks started under Alauddin Khilji’s rule and it is said that it is during this time that the Koh-i-Noor went into the hands of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • The Kakatiya rule finally came to an end in 1323 A.D. when Warangal was conquered by the Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, the then Sultan of Delhi.


  • Their temple architecture reflects great sophistication. The Thousand-pillared temple is a landmark in the evolution of the Kakatiya architectural style. The great Rudreshwar temple was built by Recharla Rudra, the commander in chief of Ganapati Deva.
  • The architects used granite and sandstone in the main structure and used bricks and lime in the construction superstructure. They used black granite for pillars and decoration.
  • The Gomateshwara temple at Manthani, the Erakesvara, and the Namesvara temples at Pillalamarri and the temple at Naguladu are the classics of the Kakatiya style of architecture.
  • The temples at Nandigonda and Narasimha temple at Parivela near Nalgonda contain richly decorated Mandapa pillars and ceilings.


  • The Kakatiyas also supported to the art of painting.
  • The traces of painting are found on ceilings of the pillared halls of the temples at Ghanpur and Palampet. Also, the damaged painting of the Churning of the Milk Ocean found on the ceiling of the Sabha Mandapa of the Namovara temple at Pillalamarri. These are good examples of their painting skill.


AuthorsFamous Books
VidyanadhaPrataparudra Bhushana
JayapasenaniNrityaratnauali, Gitaratnavali
Mantri BhaskaraBhaskara Ramayana
Gona Budda ReddyRanganatha Ramayanam
Palkuriki SomanathaBasava Puranam, Panditaradhya Charitra

Kakatiyas supported art and architecture. Agriculture, commerce, and trade flourished under their integrative rule. However, In the 13th century Kakatiya Dynasty faced several invasions of the Delhi Sultanate and eventually came to an end in 1323 AD when Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq captured the capital city Warangal

Source: The Hindu

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