General Studies IIISecurity



15th Edition of Indo – Nepal Joint Military Training, Exercise Surya Kiran between Indian Army and Nepali Army


  • The joint exercise commencing from 20 September 2021 at Pithoragarh Uttarakhand
  • Surya Kiran 15th edition is a 14-day long joint training exercise
  • Surya Kiran takes place annually/bi-annually. It started in 2011. It occurs alternatively between India and Nepal
  • During this exercise, an Infantry Battalion from Indian Army and an equivalent strength from Nepali Army would be sharing their experiences gained during the conduct of various counter-insurgency operations over a prolonged period in their respective countries.
  • As part of the exercise, both the Armies would familiarize themselves with each other’s weapons, equipment, tactics, techniques and procedures of operating in a counter-insurgency environment in mountainous terrain.
  • Also, there would be a series of Expert Academic Discussions on various subjects such as Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief, High Altitude Warfare, Jungle Warfare etc.
  • The joint military training would culminate with a gruelling 48 hours exercise to validate the performance of both the armies in counter-insurgency in mountainous terrain.
  • The exercise is part of an initiative to develop inter-operability and sharing expertise between the two nations.
  • This joint military training will go a long way in improving bilateral relations and also will be a major step towards further strengthening the traditional friendship between the two nations.
  • Last edition of Exercise Surya Kiran was conducted in Nepal in 2019.

Indian and Nepal Defence Cooperation

The following points are important to note down in relation with India and Nepal; defence cooperation:

  1. The aspects of India and Nepal defence cooperation are:

  1. Assistance during disasters
  2. Joint military exercises
  3. Adventure activities and
  4. Bilateral visits
  5. Indian Army training institutions host various training courses which number of defence personnel from Nepal army attend
  6. Since 1950, India and Nepal have been awarding each other’s Army Chief with the honorary rank of General in recognition of the mutual harmonious relationship between the two armies.
  7. The Gorkha regiments of the Indian Army are raised partly by recruitment from hill districts of Nepal.
  8. 32,000 Gorkha Soldiers from Nepal are serving in the Indian Army.
  9. There is one Military Pension Branch at Kathmandu, 2 pension paying offices and 22 District Soldier Boards in Nepal that function under the Defence Wing of the Indian Embassy in Kathmandu. Their functions are:
    • Disbursement of pensions
    • Organisation of welfare programmes for re-training, rehabilitating and assisting ex Gurkha soldiers and their families.

Source: PIB

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