General Studies IHISTORYModern India

Sri Aurobindo Ghose


Recently, the Prime Minister has set up a 53-member committee to mark the 150th birth anniversary of spiritual leader Sri Aurobindo on 15th August 2022.

About Sri Aurobindo Ghose:

  • Sri Aurobindo Ghose born 15 August 1872 in calcutta  and died 5 December 1950 in Pondicherry.
  • He was an Indian social political and spiritual philosopher, yoga guru, maharishi, poet, revolutionary leader and Indian nationalist ideolouge.
  • He was also a journalist, editing newspapers such as Bande Mataram
  • He joined the Indian movement for independence from British colonial rule, until 1910 was one of its influential leaders and then became a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution.
  • Aurobindo studied for the Indian Civil Service at King’s College, Cambridge, England.
  • After returning to India he took up various civil service works under the Maharaja of the Princely state of Baroda and became increasingly involved in nationalist politics in the Indian National Congress and the nascent revolutionary movement in Bengal with the Anushilan Samiti.
  • He was arrested in the aftermath of a number of bombings linked to his organization in a public trial where he faced charges of treason for Alipore Conspiracy. However Sri Aurobindo could only be convicted and imprisoned for writing articles against British colonial rule in India. He was released when no evidence could be provided, following the murder of a prosecution witness, Narendranath Goswami, during the trial. During his stay in the jail, he had mystical and spiritual experiences, after which he moved to Pondicherry, leaving politics for spiritual work.
  • At Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo developed a spiritual practice he called Integral Yoga.
  • The central theme of his vision was the evolution of human life into a divine life in divine body.
  • He believed in a spiritual realisation that not only liberated but transformed human nature, enabling a divine life on earth. In 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa (referred to as “The Mother”), Sri Aurobindo Ashram was founded.
  • His main literary works are 
  • The Life Divine, which deals with the philosophical aspect of Integral Yoga;
  • Synthesis of Yoga, which deals with the principles and methods of Integral Yoga; and 
  • Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, an epic poem.

Sri Aurobindo had five-part vision namely:

  1. He wished to see free and independent India that he witnessed on 15 August, 1947 on his birthday.
  2. Resurgence of Asia
  3. World Union
  4. The spiritual gift to India to the world
  5. A step in evolution which would raise man to a higher and larger consciousness.

Sri Aurobindo: Ashram

In 1926, he established ashram that has witnessed tremendous growth over the years. That time, there were 124 disciples and today more than 1200 members are there.

Important Indian Freedom Fighters and their contributions

Freedom FighterNotable Activities/Events
Mohandas Karamchand GandhiFather of nation Civil rights activist in South Africa Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha Nonviolence Civil disobedience Quit India movement
Dr. B R AmbedkarFather of Constitution First Law Minister of India
Dr. Rajendra PrasadFirst President of The Republic of India Leader from Bihar
Sardar Vallabhbhai PatelActively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement Unified India
Jawaharlal NehruPreeminent fighter First Prime Minister of India
Bhagat SinghMost influential revolutionary
Rani GaidinliuNaga spiritual and political leader
Pingali VenkayyaDesigner of the flag on which our National Flag is based
Rani Laxmi BaiIndian Rebellion of 1857
Veerapandiya KattabommanWas an 18th-century Tamil chieftain. He refused to accept the sovereignty of the British East India Company and waged war against them.  He was captured by the British and was hanged on 16 October 1799
Mangal PandeyIndian Rebellion of 1857
Bakht KhanIndian Rebellion of 1857
Chetram JatavIndian Rebellion of 1857
Bahadur Shah ZafarIndian Rebellion of 1857
Begum Hazrat MahalIndian Rebellion of 1857
Asaf AliIndian national movement
Ashfaqulla KhanKakori conspiracy
Manmath Nath GuptaKakori conspiracy
Rajendra LahiriKakori conspiracy
Sachindra BakshiKakori conspiracy
Ram Prasad BismilKakori conspiracy
Roshan SinghKakori conspiracy
Jogesh Chandra ChatterjeeKakori conspiracy
Annie BesantStarting the Home Rule Movement
Bagha JatinThe Howrah-Shibpur conspiracy case
Kartar Singh SarabhaLahore conspiracy
Basawon Singh (Sinha)Lahore conspiracy case
Senapati BapatLeader of the Mulshi Satyagraha
Bhikaji CamaUnfurled the Indian flag at the International Socialist Conference at Stuttgart in Germany, 1907
Kanaiyalal Maneklal MunshiFounder of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Tirupur KumaranFounder of the Desa Bandhu Youth Association
Lakshmi SahgalOfficer of the Indian Army
Parbati GiriMother Teresa of Western Orissa.
Kanneganti HanumanthuPalnadu Rebellion
Alluri Sitarama RajuRampa Rebellion 1922-1924
Sucheta KriplaniChief Minister of an Indian state (UP) Founder of the All India Mahila Congress 1940 She sang Vande Mataram in the Constituent Assembly on 15th August 1947
Bhavabhushan MitraGhadar Mutiny
Chandra Shekhar AzadReorganised the Hindustan Republican Association under its new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) after the death of its founder
Subhas Chandra BoseWas twice elected President of the Indian National Congress.
The INA revealed Subhash Bose’s greatness as a military leader and an organiser. (He was not the founder of INA).
Chittaranjan DasLeader in Non-cooperation Movement from Bengal and Founder of Swaraj party
Prafulla ChakiThe Muzaffarpur killing
Khudiram BoseThe Muzaffarpur killing
Madan Lal DhingraThe assassination of Curzon Wyllie
Surya SenMastermind of Chittagong Armoury raid
Pritilata WaddedarPahartali European Club attack
Rash Behari BoseIndian National Army
Shyamji Krishna VarmaFounder of the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London.
Subodh RoyTebhaga movement
Tanguturi PrakasamThe first chief minister of the new Andhra state, created by the partition of Madras State along linguistic lines.
Ubaidullah SindhiSilk Letter Conspiracy
Vasudev Balwant PhadkeDeccan Rebellion
Vinayak Damodar SavarkarOne of the leading figures of Hindu Mahasabha and the formulator of Hindu Nationalist Philosophy

Source: Indian Express

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