General Studies IIDevelopment ProcessesVulnerable Section

Darlong community of Tripura


Recently, Lok Sabha passed the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2022.

  • The bill sought to include the Darlong community as a sub-tribe of the Kuki tribal community in the list of Scheduled Tribes (STs).

About Darlong community

  • The Darlong people are a small tribe living in the state of Tripura, India. The Darlong call themselves ‘hriam’ or ‘manmasi’ (literally meaning ‘people’).
  • They constitute less than one percent of the population of Tripura. Under Darlong communities are mizo, halam and other kuki tribes.
  • The people are simple, hard-working, straightforward and honest with a high standard of integrity. In the social front the Darlong code of ethics is based on the concept of ‘tlawminngaina’.
  • Tlawminngaina to a Darlong stands for self-sacrifice, selflessness, kindness and love. A Darlong (Hriam) must be hospitable, kind, unselfish, compassionate and helpful to others.

Status of Darlong Community in Tripura?

  • Darlong is a tribal community of Tripura, which has a population of 11,000.
  • The community has a high prevalence of education and cultural activities and members of the community serve in senior positions in the local administration.
    • For example, a tribal musicologist and Rosem (a tribal instrument) maestro Thanga Darlong was awarded the prestigious Padma Shri a few years ago for his contributions to culture.

What is the Status of Tribal Population in Tripura?

  • Tripura has 20 tribal communities, people of which live in the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council formed on 18th January 1982.
  • The tribal council covers nearly 70% of the total area of Tripura and houses roughly 30% of the state’s population.
  • A large majority of them still depend on slash and burn cultivation and traditional livelihood for sustenance.
  • The tribal communities of the state include Tripura/Tripuri, Riang, Jamatia, Noatia, Uchai, Chakma, Mog, Lushai, Kuki, Halam, Munda, Kaur, Orang, Santal, Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal, Garo, Khasia, and Lepcha.
    • The Halam community has several small tribal clans within it. Many of these are linguistically endangered groups like Bongcher, Karbongs etc.

Why has Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill 2022 been introduced?

The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill 2022 proposes the inclusion of a community – Darlong in Tripura Scheduled Tribes list as in hilly areas the people of the same community are residing as different sub-tribes and are excluded from the list for a long time.

Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill 2022: Key Provisions

  • The Tripura state government had requested to include the “Darlong” community as a sub-tribe of “Kuki” in entry 9 in the list of Scheduled Tribes in respect of the State of Tripura.
  • Based on this recommendation, it was proposed to modify the list of Scheduled Tribes in respect to Tripura state by amending the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950.
  • The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2022 proposes to amend Part XV-Tripura of the Schedule to the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950 to insert the “Darlong” community as a sub-tribe of “Kuki” after item (iii) Chhalya in entry 9 in the list of Scheduled Tribes of Tripura. 

How will this benefit the community?

The addition of the community to the list of Scheduled Tribes of Tripura may entail additional expenditure, as the people belonging to the community will be entitled to the same benefits under the continuing schemes meant for the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes.

The additional expenditure shall be accommodated within the approved budgetary outlay of the Government. The additional expenditure to be incurred on this account has not been estimated yet. 


While tabling the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill 2022, the Tribal Affairs Minister said that the government is committed to the all-around development of tribal areas. 

He further informed that there has been a gradual increase in the allocation of funds under Scheduled Tribe Component-STC. While during 2014-15, the allocation was only Rs 16,111 crore, it was increased to Rs 87, 585 crore in 2021-22.

The IT Ministry recently initiated a scheme with an outlay of around Rs 7000 crore to enable broadband and 4G connectivity to all villages under ST component to enable better connectivity in the villages. 

The centre is also implementing Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana with the objective of ensuring integrated development of tribal areas under which, several schemes on education, health and tap water are being provided to the people. 

What is the Status of Scheduled Tribes in India?

  • About:
    • As per Census-1931, Schedule tribes are termed as “backward tribes” living in the “Excluded” and “Partially Excluded” areas. The Government of India Act of 1935 called for the first time for representatives of “backward tribes” in provincial assemblies.
    • The Constitution does not define the criteria for recognition of Scheduled Tribes and hence the definition contained in 1931 Census was used in the initial years after independence.
    • However, Article 366(25) of the Constitution only provides process to define Scheduled Tribes: “Scheduled Tribes means such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution.”
      • 342(1): The President may with respect to any State or Union Territory, and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor, by a public notification, specify the tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within tribes or tribal communities as Scheduled Tribe in relation to that State or Union Territory.
    • There are over 705 tribes which have been notified. The largest number of tribal communities are found in Odisha.
    • The Fifth Schedule lays out provision for Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in states other than Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
    • The Sixth Schedule deals with the administration of the tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

Legal Provisions:

  • Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 against Untouchability.
  • Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
  • Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996
  • Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

Source: The Hindu

You can find many articles on DEVELOPMENT PROCESS / Vulnerable Section (part of GS II) in our website. Go through these articles share with your friends and post your views in comment section.

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

National Commission for Denotified Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes (NCDNSNT)

Tribes in India

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