General Studies IIIIntellectual Property Rights

Geographical Indications (GI TAG)


Sixteen varieties of mangoes including three GI certified varieties exported to Bahrain from West Bengal & Bihar

About Geographical Indications:

  • A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). 
  • India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 has come into force with effect from 15 September 2003.
  • GIs have been defined under Article 22 (1) of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement as: “Indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a member, or a region or a locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin.”

Benefits of GI Tags

The Geographical Indication registration confers the following benefits:

  • Legal protection to the products
  • Prevents unauthorised use of GI tag products by others
  • It helps consumers to get quality products of desired traits and is assured of authenticity
  • Promotes the economic prosperity of producers of GI tag goods by enhancing their demand in national and international markets

Along with the benefits, there are certain issues associated with GI tags as well. Off late, there has been a rise in disputes over the question of the place of origin of the product under consideration. This gets aggravated due to a lack of clear historical evidence. 

For example, the disputes surrounding the origin of Roshogulla, a popular dessert, from eastern India. Both West Bengal and Odisha claim that the dessert originated in their own states. By ‘winning’ a GI tag, each state is looking to promote its own cultural and regional jingoism over the other.

As a point of discussion, this sort of unhealthy competition tends to polarise the country on regional, cultural and linguistic lines. Most states in their rush to corner as many GI tags as possible have forgotten to pay attention to enhance the value of products already having a GI tag. 

As a result, neither the local community nor the customer is benefitting economically. This trend undercuts the very idea of GI protection to native endemic products.

Significance of GI Tags

A geographical indication right facilitates those who have the right to use the indication to prohibit its usage by a third party whose product does not conform to the applicable standards.

For example, in the purview in which the Darjeeling geographical indication is protected, producers of Darjeeling tea can omit the term “Darjeeling” for tea not grown in their tea gardens or not produced according to the norms set out in the code of practice for the geographical indication.

However, a protected GI does not permit the holder to forbid someone from making a product using the same approaches as those set out in the standards for that indication. Protection for a GI tag is usually procured by acquiring a right over the sign that constitutes the indication.

Role of GI in Rural Development

Geographical indications are mostly traditional products, produced by rural communities over generations that have gained prominence on the markets for their precise qualities.

The recognition and protection of the markets of these products allow the producers’ community to devote and maintaining the precise qualities of the product on which the reputation is built. This might also allow them to invest together in promoting the reputation of the product.

Some of the observed rural development impacts of GI are:

  • The supply chain is structured around a common product reputation
  • Increased and stabilised prices for the GI product
  • Distributed through all the levels of the supply chain adds value
  • Natural resources can be preserved on which the product is based
  • Preservation of traditions and traditional expertise
  • Tourism can be boosted

Geographical Indications Protection

Geographical indications are protected and preserved in various countries and regional systems through a wide array of approaches and often using a consolidation of two or more approaches. 

There are three major ways to protect a geographical indication:

  1. So-called sui generis systems (i.e. special regimes of protection)
  2. Using collective or certification marks
  3. Techniques concentrating on business practices, including administrative product approval schemes

These approaches have been developed in consonance with different legal practices and within a framework of individual historical and economic conditions.

The approaches to protect GI comprise differences with respect to critical questions like conditions for protection or the scope of protection. On the other hand, the two modes of protection mentioned above namely sui generis systems and collective or certification mark systems, share some common characteristics, such as the fact that they set up rights for collective use by those who comply with defined standards.

State-Wise List of GI Tags in India

The GI tags allotted to the handicraft, agricultural, food or manufactured products are listed down below state-wise:

Indian StateGT Tags
Andhra PradeshSrikalahasthi Kalamkari Kondapalli Bommallu Machilipatnam Kalamkari Budithi Bell & Brass Metal Craft Andhra Pradesh Leather Puppetry Uppada Jamdani Sarees Venkatagiri Sarees Bobbili Veena Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees And Paavadas Udayagiri Wooden Cutlery Durgi Stone Carvings Etikoppaka Toys Allagadda Stone Carving  Tirupati Laddu Bandar Laddu Guntur Sannam Chilli Araku Valley Arabica Coffee
Arunachal PradeshIdu Mishmi Textiles Arunachal Orange
AssamMuga Silk of Assam Muga Silk of Assam (Logo)   Assam Karbi Anglong Ginger Joha Rice of Assam Tezpur Litchi Boka Chaul Kaji Nemu
BiharMadhubani Paintings Applique (Khatwa) Work of Bihar Sujini Embroidery Work of Bihar Sikki Grass Products of Bihar Bhagalpur Silk Applique (Khatwa) Work of Bihar (Logo) Sikki Grass Products of Bihar (Logo) Sujini Embroidery Work of Bihar(Logo) Bhagalpuri Zardalu Katarni Rice Maghai Paan Shahi Litchi of Bihar Silao Khaja
ChattisgarhBastar Dhokra Bastar Wooden Craft Bastar Iron Craft
GoaKhola Chilli Feni
GujaratSankheda Furniture Agates of Cambay Kutch Embroidery Tangaliya Shawl  Surat Zari Craft Kachchh Shawls Patan Patola Sankheda Furniture (Logo) Kutch Embroidery (Logo) Agates of Cambay (Logo) Jamnagari Bandhani RajKot Patola  Pethapur Printing Blocks Gir Kesar Mango Bhalia Wheat
Himachal PradeshKullu Shawl Kangra Tea Chamba Rumal Kinnauri Shawl Kullu ShawL (Logo) Kangra Paintings Himachali Kala Zeera Himachali Chulli Oil
Jammu & KashmirKani Shawl Kashmir Pashmina Kashmir Paper Machie Kashmir Walnut Wood Carving  Khatamband Kashmiri Hand Knotted Carpet Saffron (Mongra, Lachha, Guchhi)
JharkhandSohrai – Khovar Painting
KarnatakaMysore Silk Bidriware Channapatna Toys & Dolls Mysore Rosewood Inlay Kasuti Embroidery Mysore Traditional Paintings Ilkal Sarees Ganjifa Cards of Mysore Navalgund Durries  Karnataka Bronzeware Sandur Lambani Embroidery Kinhal Toys Udupi Sarees Mysore Silk (Logo) Coorg Orange Mysore Betel leaf Nanjangud Banana Udupi Mallige Mysore Mallige Hadagali Mallige Coorg Green Cardamom Devanahalli Pomelo Appemidi Mango Kamalapur Red Banana Bangalore Blue Grapes Coorg Arabica Coffee Chikmagalur Arabica Coffee Bababudangiri Arabica Coffee Sirsi Supari Gulbarga Tur Dal   Dharwad Pedha Mysore Agarbathi Mysore Sandalwood Oil Mysore Sandal soap
KeralaTirur Betel Leaf (Tirur Vettila)  Alleppey Coir Navara Rice  Palakkadan Matta Rice Alleppey Green Cardamom Maddalam of Palakkad Screw Pine Craft of Kerala Brass Broidered Coconut Shell Crafts of Kerala Pokkali Rice  Vazhakulam Pineapple Cannanore Home Furnishings Balaramapuram Sarees and Fine Cotton Fabrics Kasaragod Sarees Kuthampully Sarees Central Travancore Jaggery Wayanad Jeerakasala Rice A Wayanad Gandhakasala Rice Payyannur Pavithra Ring Chendamangalam Dhoties & Set Mundu Kaipad Rice  Chengalikodan Nendran Banana Kuthampully Dhoties & Set Mundu Maddalam of Palakkad (Logo) Brass Broidered Coconut Shell Craft of Kerala (Logo) Screw Pine Craft of Kerala (Logo Nilambur Teak Wayanad Robusta Coffee Marayoor Jaggery (Marayoor Sharkara)
Madhya PradeshChanderi Sarees Leather Toys of Indore  Bagh Prints of Madhya Pradesh Bell Metal Ware of Datia and Tikamgarh Maheshwar Sarees & Fabrics Bell Metal Ware of Datia and Tikamgarh (Logo)  Leather Toys of Indore (Logo) Ratlami Sev Bagh Prints of Madhya Pradesh (Logo ) Jhabua Kadaknath Black Chicken Meat
MaharashtraSolapur Chaddar Solapur Terry Towel Puneri Pagadi Nashik Valley Wine Paithani Sarees and Fabrics Mahabaleshwar Strawberry Nashik Grapes Kolhapur Jaggery Ajara Ghansal Rice Mangalwedha Jowar Sindhudurg & Ratnagiri Kokum Waghya Ghevada Navapur Tur Dal Vengurla Cashew Lasalgaon Onion Sangli Raisins Beed Custard Apple Jalna Sweet Orange Waigaon Turmeric Purandar Fig Jalgaon Bharit Brinjal Solapur Pomegranate Bhiwapur Chil Ambemohar Rice Dahanu Gholvad Chikoo Jalgaon Banana Marathwada Kesar Mango Karvath Kati Sarees & Fabrics Alphonso Sangli Turmeric
ManipurShaphee Lanphee Wangkhei Phee Moirang Phee Kachai Lemon Chak-Hao
MeghalayaKhasi Mandarin Memong Narang
MizoramMizo Chilli Pawndum Ngotekherh Hmaram Tawlhlohpuan Mizo Puanchei
NagalandNaga Mircha Naga Tree Tomato Chakhesang Shawl
OdishaKotpad Handloom fabric  Orissa Ikat  Konark Stone carving Orissa Pattachitra Pipli Applique Work Khandua Saree and Fabrics Gopalpur Tussar Fabrics Ganjam Kewda Rooh Ganjam Kewda Flower Dhalapathar Parda & Fabrics  Sambalpuri Bandha Saree & Fabrics Bomkai Saree & Fabrics Habaspuri Saree & Fabrics  Berhampur Patta (Phoda Kumbha) Saree & Joda Orissa Pattachitra (Logo) Kandhamal Haladi Odisha Rasagola
RajasthanKota Doria Blue Pottery of Jaipur Molela Clay Work Kathputlis of Rajasthan Bikaneri Bhujia Kota Doria (Logo) Bagru Hand Block Print Thewa Art Work Makrana Marble Molela Clay Work of Rajasthan (Logo) Blue Pottery of Jaipur (Logo) Kathputlis of Rajasthan (Logo) Pokaran Pottery
Tamil NaduSalem Fabric Kancheepuram Silk  Kancheepuram Silk Madurai Sungudi Coimbatore Wet Grinder Thanjavur Paintings Temple Jewellery of Nagercoil Thanjavur Art Plate East India Leather Salem Silk known as Salem Venpattu Kovai Kora Cotton Sarees Arani Silk Swamimalai Bronze Icons Eathamozhi Tall Coconut Thanjavur Doll Nilgiri (Orthodox) Virupakshi Hill Banana Sirumalai Hill Banana Madurai Malli Pattamadai Pai (“Pattamadai Mat”)  Nachiarkoil Kuthuvilakku (“Nachiarkoil Lamp”) Chettinad Kottan Toda Embroidery Thanjavur Veenai Thanjavur Art Plate (Logo) Swamimalai Bronze Icons (Logo) Temple Jewellery of Nagercoil (Logo) Mahabalipuram Stone Sculpture  Erode Manjal (Erode Turmeric) Thirubuvanam Silk Sarees Kodaikanal Malai Poondu Palani Panchamirtham Dindigul Locks Kandangi Saree Srivilliputtur Palkova Kovilpatti Kadalai Mittai Thanjavur Pith Works Arumbavur Wood Carvings
TripuraTripura Queen Pineapple
TelanganaPochampally Ikat Silver Filigree of Karimnagar Nirmal Toys and Craft Nirmal Furniture Nirmal Paintings Gadwal Sarees Hyderabad Haleem Cheriyal Paintings Siddipet Gollabhama Narayanpet Handloom Sarees Pochampally Ikat (Logo) Adilabad Dokra Warangal Durries Telia Rumal
Uttar PradeshAllahabad Surkha Guava  Lucknow Chikan Craft  Malihabadi Dusseheri mango Banaras Brocades and Sarees Hand Made Carpet of Bhadohi Agra Durrie  Farrukhabad Prints  Lucknow Zardozi  Banaras Brocades and Sarees (Logo)  Kalanamak Rice Firozabad Glass  Kannauj Perfume  Kanpur Saddlery  Moradabad Metal Craft Saharanpur Wood Craft Meerut Scissors  Khurja Pottery  Banaras Gulabi Meenakari Craft  Varanasi Wooden Lacquerware & Toys  Mirzapur Handmade Dari Nizamabad Black Pottery Banaras Métal Repoussé Craft Varanasi Glass beads  Ghazipur Wall Hanging  Varanasi Soft Stone Jali Work  Chunar Balua Patthar  Gorakhpur Terracotta
West BengalDarjeeling Tea (word & logo) Nakshi Kantha Santiniketan Leather Goods Malda Laxman Bhog Mango Khirsapati (Himsagar) mangoes Malda Fazli Mango Santipur Saree Baluchari Saree Dhaniakhali Saree Joynagar Moa Bardhaman Sitabhog Bardhaman Mihidana Gobindobhog Rice Tulaipanji Rice Banglar Rasogolla  Bankura Panchmura Terracotta Craft  Bengal Patachitra Purulia Chhau Mask Wooden Mask of Kushmandi Madur kathi

Source: PIB

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