- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), statutory organization,
- It was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
- Further, CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
- It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
- It coordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards by providing technical assistance and guidance and also resolves disputes among them.
Air Quality Monitoring is an important part of the air quality management. The National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) has been established with objectives to determine the present air quality status and trends and to control and regulate pollution from industries and other source to meet the air quality standards. It also provides background air quality data needed for industrial siting and towns planning.
Besides this, CPCB has an automatic monitoring station at ITO Intersection in New Delhi. At this station Resirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) are being monitored regularly. This information on Air Quality at ITO is updated every week.
Water Quality Monitoring is an important part of the Water quality management. Fresh water is a finite resource essential for use in agriculture, industry, propagation of wildlife & fisheries and for human existence. India is a riverine country. It has 14 major rivers, 44 medium rivers and 55 minor rivers besides numerous lakes, ponds and wells which are used as primary source of drinking water even without treatment. Most of the rivers being fed by monsoon rains, which is limited to only three months of the year, run dry throughout the rest of the year often carrying wastewater discharges from industries or cities/towns endangering the quality of our scarce water resources. The parliament of India in its wisdom enacted the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 with a view to maintaining and restoring wholesomeness of our water bodies. One of the mandates of CPCB is to collect, collate and disseminate technical and statistical data relating to water pollution. Hence, Water Quality Monitoring (WQM) and Surveillance are of utmost importance.
The CPCB, as spelt out in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
- to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and
- to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
- Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution and improvement of the quality of air.
- Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide program for the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution;
- Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigation and research relating to problems of water and air pollution, and for their prevention, control or abatement;
- Plan and organize training of persons engaged in programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution;
- Organize through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution;
- Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution and the measures devised for their effective prevention, control or abatement;
- Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts;
- Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their prevention and control;
- Lay down, modify or annul, in consultation with the State Governments concerned, the standards for stream or well, and lay down standards for the quality of air; and
- Perform such other function as may be prescribed by the Government of India.
Central Pollution Control Board Organizational Structure
CPCB is led by its Chairman followed by the Member Secretary, and other members. The CPCB performs its various functions through the following nine major project budget heads.
- Pollution assessment (survey and monitoring).
- R&D and laboratory management.
- Development of standards and guidelines for industry-specific emissions and effluent standards
- Information database management and library
- Pollution control technology
- Pollution control enforcement
- Mass awareness and publications
- Hazard waste management
Powers and Functions of CPCB
- Advising the Central and State Government on matters related to prevention, improvement and control of Air and Water pollution.
- Planning various programs to control and prevent Air & Water pollution
- Planning and organizing training programs for people involved in activities for the prevention, improvement and control of Air and Water pollution.
- Collecting, compiling, and publishing statistical and technical reports related to Air & Water Pollution. These reports are used to develop preventive measures to control and reduce pollution.
- Preparing manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts.